Hyphen Mini-Concordance

I took a dare for this summer, let’s see how I do.  This post will be a mini-concordance of the hyphenated words in the work, based on which we will explore some ideas about language and world-building.  Even assembling the 374 words is painstaking; let’s consider this post a work in progress for a little while (would that be a work-in-progress?).

A-arguing
A-roaming
A-sneakin’
A-struggling
A-talkin’
A-thinkin’
A-wagging
After-supper
Air-holes
Apple-tart
Arm-chair
Arrow-wound
Back-door
Bad-hearted
Bag-End
Banner-bearers
Barn-owl
Barrel-rider
Bat-cloud
Bat-wing
Battle-ground

Battering-ram
Bee-pastures
Beech-logs
Beer-barrels
Beer-mug
Bell-shaped
Bird-nesting
Bird-speech
Black-haired
Blacksmith-work
Blind-man’s-buff
Blood-curdling
Breakfast-time
Burglar-expert
Cavern-mouth
Clay-pipe
Cliff-wall
Clink-clink
Clue-finder
Coal-black
Comfortable-looking
Cross-legged
Dark-green
Dark-grey
Dart-throwing
Deep-elves
Deep-piled
Deep-set
Deep-throated
Ding-dong-a-ling-dang
Dining-room
Dish-covers
Door-post
Doorstep
Double-thick
Dragon-fire
Dragon-gold
Dragon-guarded
Dragon-haunted
Dragon-hoard
Dragon-lore
Dragon-noises
Dragon-shooter
Dragon-sickness
Dragon-slay
Dragon-spell
Dragon-talk
Drawing-room
Dream-dinners
Dressing-gown
Drinking-bowl
Drinking-horn
Drum-shaped
Dungeon-hall
Dwarf-fashion
Dwarf-kings
Dwarf-lad
Dwarf-linked
Dwarf-lord
Dwarf-mail
Dwarf-messenger
Dwarf-ridden
Eagle-lord
Easy-tempered
Egg-question
Egg-shaped
Elf-cave
Elf-charge
Elf-fire
Elf-friend
Elf-guard
Elf-host
Elf-king
Elf-lord
Elf-maiden
Elf-prince
Elf-road
Elven-harp
Elvish-looking
Fair-sized

Far-distant
Far-off
Fat-bodied
Feather-bed
Figure-eight
Fir-trees
Fire-place
First-class
Fish-bones
Flip-flap
Fly-walk
Foe-hammer
Food-bags
Food-supplies
Fore-foot
Forest-day
Forest-floor
Forest-gate
Forest-gloom
Forest-path
Forest-river
Forest-road
Forest-roof
Forest-silence
Forest-track
Four-legs
Fourth-day
Front-door
Front-hall
Frying-pan
Gate-guards
Giant-size
Goblin-chains
Goblin-cities
Goblin-cleaver
Goblin-drivers
Goblin-dwelling
Goblin-guards
Goblin-hall
Goblin-infested
Goblin-raid
Goblin-town
Goblin-tunnels
Goblin-wars
Gold-plated
Good-bye
Good-morning
Good-natured
Good-night
Grand-uncle
Grass-green
Grass-land
Grassy-floored
Grown-up
Guard-chamber
Half-finished
Half-imagined
Half-open
Hawthorn-berries
Hearth-run
Helter-skelter
Hide-and-seek
Hiding-place
High-walled
Hill-side
Hind-legs
Honey-smelling
Iron-bound
Jack-in-the-box
Key-hold
Lake-man
Lake-people
Lake-town
Lamp-like
Landing-place
Late-comers
Left-hand
Light-elves
Lightning-flash
Little-known
Lone-lands
Long-bodied
Long-forgotten
Long-lived
Look-out
Looking-glass
Low-seated
Low-spirited
Make-up
Market-place
Market-pool
May-sunshine
May-time
Meeting-place
Mid-day
Mid-winter
Midsummer-eve
Mince-pies
Mock-politeness
Money-counters
Moon-letters
Moss-green
Mountain-gates
Mountain-king
Mountain-palace
Mountain-paths
Mountain-roots
Mountain-shadowed
Mountain-side
Mountain-slope
Mountain-spur
Mountain-stream
Mountain-top
Mountain-wall
Never-varying
New-hewn
No-legs
Noble-hearted
North-west
Note-paper
Now-a-days
Oak-trunk
Old-fashioned
Old-looking
One-leg
Out-of-doors
Out-of-pocket
Owk-wood
Owl-noises
Pine-cone
Pine-needles
Pine-root
Pine-torch
Pine-tree
Pine-woods
Pitch-dark
Pocket-handkerchief
Pocket-knife
Pocket-picking
Pony-rides
Pop-gun
Pork-pie
Post-office
Rabbit-cropped
Rabbit-hole
Raft-elves
Raft-men
Raft-steerer
Rat-tat
Raven-messengers
Re-sung
Red-golden
Red-stained
Riddle-competition
Riddle-game
River-door
River-shore
River-toll
River-valley
Rock-chamber
Rock-face
Rock-gates
Rock-shadows
Rock-wall
Rockhewn
Round-bellied
Rune-letters
Rush-bottom
Sackville-Baggins
Screech-owl
Sea-elves
Sea-sighing
Seed-cake
Shut-in
Side-door
Side-passage
Silver-grey
Silver-hafted
Silver-steel
Sitting-room
Skin-changer
Sky-glue
Sky-high
Sleeping-daught
Smith-craft
Smoke-hole
Smoke-ring
Smooth-floored
Smooth-sided
Snail-covered
Snow-peak
Snow-white
South-east
South-pointing
South-west
Spare-rooms
Spider-colony
Spider-poison
Spider-rope
Spider-string
Spider-thread
Steep-sided
Steep-walled
Stone-giant
Stone-paved
Stone-slide
Story-telling
Supper-time
Sure-footed
Suspicious-looking
Swift-flying
Sword-blade
Tea-time
Thank-you
Thorn-bush
Thorn-hedge
Three-legs
Thrice-forged
Thrush-language
Thunder-battle
Tinder-box
To-day
To-do
Tobacco-jar
Tom-cat
Took-clan
top-hat
Toss-pot
Town-baiting
Town-hall
Treasure-hunter
Tree-stem
Tree-top
Tree-trunk
Troll-make
Tub-trading
Tunnel-wall
Twenty-first
Twenty-second
Twice-baked
Two-handed
Two-handled
Two-legs
Ugly-looking
Under-covering
Under-Hill
Valley-side
Vampire-like
Walking-stick
Warg-skin
Wash-up
Watch-fire
Watch-post
Water-gate
Water-skin
Weather-stain
Web-cutter
Well-armed
Well-behaved
Well-filled
Well-groomed
Well-to-do
Wide-armed
Wide-sweeping
Wine-barrel
Wolf-ally
Wolf-glade
Wolf-guards
Wolf-rider
Wolf-ring
Wood-elf
Wood-fire
Yule-tide
Zig-zag

More Hyphen Thoughts

I had the great pleasure of talking with Tech Support about the graph I shared on July 10th:

Hyphenated Graph

Tech Support made a few interpretations –

  • Clearly Bilbo’s native language of Westron is perfectly suited to hobbit life and has many specific words relevant to the Shire and the hosting of tea-parties that English simply can’t translate and hyphenated words must do to cover the inadequacy.
  • British English is plenty concerned with hunger and sogginess and dimness, so the Mirkwood scene was directly translatable into common English words.
  • He hazards a guess that Westron is agglutinative, that it is a more parochial and conservative language than a language that has reached the “modern” stage.

Shout-out to Mark Rosenfelder whose Language Construction Kit moved Tech Support from actively resisting the conventions of grammar (as nine-year-olds are wont to do) to giving Mama grammar lessons so she can do her thesis work.

Intriguing Hyphens

I nourish ideas about the different people Bilbo encountered in Middle Earth and the different languages those people spoke (although they may all have spoken Bilbo’s own language to him during the adventure there and back again).  I’ve mentioned a few times already that Tolkien uses a goodly number of hyphenated words which are not hyphenated in the OED (snow-peak, egg-question, check the Concordance for all 608 of them). Either they are separate words that he’s joined or compound words that he has separated.  He even had made compound words of ones which the OED says are separate words or hyphenated!  I thought of searching for these words to see if they show a particular region of Middle Earth which speaks a language that flexibly mooshes words together to express meaning more specifically.  Would the right word for that be agglutinative?

Well, it’s easy enough to search on hyphens (fear not, I took out the dashes).  I’m just going to leave this graph here for folks to nibble with their second breakfast.

Hyphenated Graph

I’m not sure what to make of it yet; my first approximation is that Westron, Bilbo’s native language, is the agglutinative one and that Mirkwood and the effects of dragon-sickness were both so depressing as to shock Bilbo out of his usual speech patterns.