Hyphen Mini-Concordance

I took a dare for this summer, let’s see how I do.  This post will be a mini-concordance of the hyphenated words in the work, based on which we will explore some ideas about language and world-building.  Even assembling the 374 words is painstaking; let’s consider this post a work in progress for a little while (would that be a work-in-progress?).

A-arguing
A-roaming
A-sneakin’
A-struggling
A-talkin’
A-thinkin’
A-wagging
After-supper
Air-holes
Apple-tart
Arm-chair
Arrow-wound
Back-door
Bad-hearted
Bag-End
Banner-bearers
Barn-owl
Barrel-rider
Bat-cloud
Bat-wing
Battle-ground

Battering-ram
Bee-pastures
Beech-logs
Beer-barrels
Beer-mug
Bell-shaped
Bird-nesting
Bird-speech
Black-haired
Blacksmith-work
Blind-man’s-buff
Blood-curdling
Breakfast-time
Burglar-expert
Cavern-mouth
Clay-pipe
Cliff-wall
Clink-clink
Clue-finder
Coal-black
Comfortable-looking
Cross-legged
Dark-green
Dark-grey
Dart-throwing
Deep-elves
Deep-piled
Deep-set
Deep-throated
Ding-dong-a-ling-dang
Dining-room
Dish-covers
Door-post
Doorstep
Double-thick
Dragon-fire
Dragon-gold
Dragon-guarded
Dragon-haunted
Dragon-hoard
Dragon-lore
Dragon-noises
Dragon-shooter
Dragon-sickness
Dragon-slay
Dragon-spell
Dragon-talk
Drawing-room
Dream-dinners
Dressing-gown
Drinking-bowl
Drinking-horn
Drum-shaped
Dungeon-hall
Dwarf-fashion
Dwarf-kings
Dwarf-lad
Dwarf-linked
Dwarf-lord
Dwarf-mail
Dwarf-messenger
Dwarf-ridden
Eagle-lord
Easy-tempered
Egg-question
Egg-shaped
Elf-cave
Elf-charge
Elf-fire
Elf-friend
Elf-guard
Elf-host
Elf-king
Elf-lord
Elf-maiden
Elf-prince
Elf-road
Elven-harp
Elvish-looking
Fair-sized

Far-distant
Far-off
Fat-bodied
Feather-bed
Figure-eight
Fir-trees
Fire-place
First-class
Fish-bones
Flip-flap
Fly-walk
Foe-hammer
Food-bags
Food-supplies
Fore-foot
Forest-day
Forest-floor
Forest-gate
Forest-gloom
Forest-path
Forest-river
Forest-road
Forest-roof
Forest-silence
Forest-track
Four-legs
Fourth-day
Front-door
Front-hall
Frying-pan
Gate-guards
Giant-size
Goblin-chains
Goblin-cities
Goblin-cleaver
Goblin-drivers
Goblin-dwelling
Goblin-guards
Goblin-hall
Goblin-infested
Goblin-raid
Goblin-town
Goblin-tunnels
Goblin-wars
Gold-plated
Good-bye
Good-morning
Good-natured
Good-night
Grand-uncle
Grass-green
Grass-land
Grassy-floored
Grown-up
Guard-chamber
Half-finished
Half-imagined
Half-open
Hawthorn-berries
Hearth-run
Helter-skelter
Hide-and-seek
Hiding-place
High-walled
Hill-side
Hind-legs
Honey-smelling
Iron-bound
Jack-in-the-box
Key-hold
Lake-man
Lake-people
Lake-town
Lamp-like
Landing-place
Late-comers
Left-hand
Light-elves
Lightning-flash
Little-known
Lone-lands
Long-bodied
Long-forgotten
Long-lived
Look-out
Looking-glass
Low-seated
Low-spirited
Make-up
Market-place
Market-pool
May-sunshine
May-time
Meeting-place
Mid-day
Mid-winter
Midsummer-eve
Mince-pies
Mock-politeness
Money-counters
Moon-letters
Moss-green
Mountain-gates
Mountain-king
Mountain-palace
Mountain-paths
Mountain-roots
Mountain-shadowed
Mountain-side
Mountain-slope
Mountain-spur
Mountain-stream
Mountain-top
Mountain-wall
Never-varying
New-hewn
No-legs
Noble-hearted
North-west
Note-paper
Now-a-days
Oak-trunk
Old-fashioned
Old-looking
One-leg
Out-of-doors
Out-of-pocket
Owk-wood
Owl-noises
Pine-cone
Pine-needles
Pine-root
Pine-torch
Pine-tree
Pine-woods
Pitch-dark
Pocket-handkerchief
Pocket-knife
Pocket-picking
Pony-rides
Pop-gun
Pork-pie
Post-office
Rabbit-cropped
Rabbit-hole
Raft-elves
Raft-men
Raft-steerer
Rat-tat
Raven-messengers
Re-sung
Red-golden
Red-stained
Riddle-competition
Riddle-game
River-door
River-shore
River-toll
River-valley
Rock-chamber
Rock-face
Rock-gates
Rock-shadows
Rock-wall
Rockhewn
Round-bellied
Rune-letters
Rush-bottom
Sackville-Baggins
Screech-owl
Sea-elves
Sea-sighing
Seed-cake
Shut-in
Side-door
Side-passage
Silver-grey
Silver-hafted
Silver-steel
Sitting-room
Skin-changer
Sky-glue
Sky-high
Sleeping-daught
Smith-craft
Smoke-hole
Smoke-ring
Smooth-floored
Smooth-sided
Snail-covered
Snow-peak
Snow-white
South-east
South-pointing
South-west
Spare-rooms
Spider-colony
Spider-poison
Spider-rope
Spider-string
Spider-thread
Steep-sided
Steep-walled
Stone-giant
Stone-paved
Stone-slide
Story-telling
Supper-time
Sure-footed
Suspicious-looking
Swift-flying
Sword-blade
Tea-time
Thank-you
Thorn-bush
Thorn-hedge
Three-legs
Thrice-forged
Thrush-language
Thunder-battle
Tinder-box
To-day
To-do
Tobacco-jar
Tom-cat
Took-clan
top-hat
Toss-pot
Town-baiting
Town-hall
Treasure-hunter
Tree-stem
Tree-top
Tree-trunk
Troll-make
Tub-trading
Tunnel-wall
Twenty-first
Twenty-second
Twice-baked
Two-handed
Two-handled
Two-legs
Ugly-looking
Under-covering
Under-Hill
Valley-side
Vampire-like
Walking-stick
Warg-skin
Wash-up
Watch-fire
Watch-post
Water-gate
Water-skin
Weather-stain
Web-cutter
Well-armed
Well-behaved
Well-filled
Well-groomed
Well-to-do
Wide-armed
Wide-sweeping
Wine-barrel
Wolf-ally
Wolf-glade
Wolf-guards
Wolf-rider
Wolf-ring
Wood-elf
Wood-fire
Yule-tide
Zig-zag

Food

We reach the signal word itself!

I am intrigued to compare our “uncommon food words” graph to the graph of this word: how intriguing!  The scales are quite different, of course, the word “food” occurring only 39 times in the text.  What interests me is that the word “food” pops up in regions where the uncommon food words are low…

2016.05.18.food vs uncommon foods

Once we’ve completed our survey of food, I am excited to see the graph of the entire repast!

  • 02.035 Of course it was mostly food,
  • 02.109 and food!”
  • 02.113 but there was a good deal of food
  • 02.116 and such food as was untouched
  • 03.005 “We need food,
  • 03.033 whether you liked food,
  • 03.034 Their bags were filled with food
  • 04.042 and no food,
  • 06.001 cloak, food, pony, his buttons
  • 06.061 especially to get food or slaves to work for them.
  • 07.012 We have no food,
  • 07.126 and he would lade them with food
  • 07.126 nor food.
  • 07.126 and nuts are about all that grows there fit for food;
  • 07.127 and the food I send with you.
  • 07.144 when the food begins to run short.’
  • 08.007 The food would not last for ever:
  • 08.036 was a poor exchange for packs filled with food however heavy.
  • 08.043 there was no food to go back to down below.
  • 08.046 and crumbs of food;
  • 08.052 and dream of food,
  • 08.059 with the one idea of begging for some food.
  • 08.060 for scraps of food for fear of becoming separated again.
  • 08.125 and where was there any food,
  • 08.140 Looking for food
  • 08.144 They gave him food
  • 09.010 and to be given food
  • 09.011 by stealing food
  • 10.011 If you want food,
  • 13.057 (and not altogether without food)
  • 13.062 but I see no sign of food.
  • 14.037 and food.
  • 14.038 and there was little food
  • 15.024 And little food to use!’
  • 15.028 for they had food for some weeks with care –
  • 18.019 If more of us valued food and cheer and song

Round

Word fan Feor Hund asked that I give priority to the word “round” and I’m happy to do so!  It makes a delightful graph and is used 112 times in the work.  The peak in Chapter 6 seems to be caused by wargs going “round and round” the trees as Bilbo and his friends jump out of the frying pan and into the fire.  this graph peaks at just over 3.5 “round” words per thousand

Round

  • 1.002 It had a perfectly round door
  • 1.002 as all the people for many miles round called it –
  • 1.002 and many little round doors opened out of it,
  • 1.002 deep-set round windows looking over his garden,
  • 1.021 and scuttled inside his round green door,
  • 1.036 to fetch two beautiful round seed-cakes
  • 1.043 while the four dwarves sat round the table,
  • 1.047 on a round of buttered scones,
  • 1.060 with the thirteen dwarves all round:
  • 1.068 while the hobbit was turning round
  • 1.068 and round
  • 1.068 or round
  • 1.068 and round the ceiling;
  • 1.110 of the Country Round with all his favourite walks
  • 1.124 here Thorin stroked the gold chain round his neck –
  • 1.140 and have a look round.
  • 2.022 round the corner of the road from the village.
  • 2.030 never turning round or taking any notice of the hobbit.
  • 2.038 They have seldom even heard of the king round here,
  • 2.043 Three very large persons sitting round
  • 2.050 and William turned round at once
  • 2.060 “P’raps there are more like him round about,
  • 2.071 and his head was going round;
  • 3.002 looking at it with round eyes.
  • 3.011 and the others gathered round him
  • 4.009 “not far round the next corner;
  • 4.021 Round and round far underground
  • 4.021 Round and round far underground
  • 4.025 and armed goblins were standing round him
  • 4.044 many many feet which seemed only just round the last corner.
  • 4.048 They came scurrying round the corner
  • 5.004 and feeling all round himself for matches
  • 5.012 except for two big round pale eyes
  • 5.039 and the answer was all round him any way.
  • 5.134 he saw, filtering round another corner –
  • 6.056 for there were howls all round them now,
  • 6.058 yelping all round the tree
  • 6.059 with wolves all round below waiting for you,
  • 6.064 with wolves all round on the ground below.
  • 6.064 and then rushed round
  • 6.064 and round the circle
  • 6.069 and slowly circling ever round
  • 6.069 and round they came down,
  • 6.070 All round the clearing of the Wargs fire was leaping.
  • 6.070 and howling round the trunks,
  • 6.072 and brushwood round the tree-trunks.
  • 6.072 Others rushed round
  • 6.072 all round the dwarves,
  • 6.072 dancing round
  • 6.072 and round
  • 6.072 in a circle like people round a midsummer bonfire.
  • 6.099 and the figures of the dwarves round it cooking
  • 7.005 for they began to go down circling round
  • 7.019 The dwarves all gathered round
  • 7.030 There is a gate somewhere round this way.’
  • 7.051 and Dori came round the house
  • 7.093 in rolling round drum-shaped sections of logs,
  • 7.097 The dwarves were sitting cross-legged on the floor round the fire,
  • 7.116 dodging round the pillars of the hall,
  • 7.120 dancing slow heavy dances round
  • 7.120 and round
  • 7.125 and they followed round the house.
  • 7.150 is there no way round?’
  • 7.151 Before you could get round Mirkwood
  • 7.151 Before you could get round it
  • 8.005 in the darkness round them,
  • 8.006 and hundreds of eyes all round them,
  • 8.006 flapping and whirring round their ears.
  • 8.040 and have a look round.
  • 8.042 he saw all round him a sea of dark green,
  • 8.044 all round like the edges of a great bowl,
  • 8.050 but to tighten the belts round their empty stomachs,
  • 8.058 they peered round the trunks
  • 8.058 to some of the trees round about;
  • 8.073 Bilbo found himself running round
  • 8.073 and round
  • 8.073 while people he could not see or feel were doing the same all round him
  • 8.075 as it struggled to wind its abominable threads round
  • 8.075 and round him.
  • 8.087 Just coming round again,
  • 8.099 in a thick fence of them all round him –
  • 8.106 that bound him round,
  • 8.107 wound round
  • 8.107 and round with only his nose to breathe through.
  • 8.112 round old Bombur
  • 8.114 and hundreds of angry spiders were goggling at them all round
  • 8.115 to weave their webs all round them again
  • 8.128 and looked round at them.
  • 9.001 of many torches all round them,
  • 9.038 running round putting the finishing touches to the packing,
  • 9.046 Then they drank once round
  • 9.052 began to sing a song round the river-door.
  • 9.055 the barrel rolled round
  • 10.001 After a while the river rounded a steep shoulder of land
  • 10.009 and towed away round the high shoulder of rock
  • 10.045 and ponies had been sent round by circuitous paths
  • 11.037 and drew the key on its chain from round his neck.
  • 12.027 or fly whirling round
  • 12.031 as he hunted round
  • 12.031 and round the mountain-sides.
  • 13.011 Faint echoes ran round the unseen hall,
  • 13.013 and have a look round before the luck turns.’
  • 13.048 and round a wide-sweeping turn –
  • 13.051 and round
  • 13.067 There were several places like it round the Mountain.
  • 14.015 and round again,
  • 16.017 when he missed his footing on a round stone
  • 17.031 round the eastern spur of the Mountain
  • 17.048 round the spur’s end
  • 17.062 in the gloom Bilbo looked round.
  • 18.023 about their lords upon a low rounded hill.
  • 18.043 and round its northern end
  • 19.035 were thick round the door,

If Chance We Call it…

I’ve been waiting a long time to make this chart of some very special common words.  These are every permutation of “chance”, “luck”, “fate”, and “fortune” found in The Hobbit, from “lucky” to “unfortunately”.  We see some when Bilbo finds the ring, yet more when he brags to Smaug about being named Luck-Wearer and Lucky Number.

Luck

Highest peak of all, however, is in Chapter 9.

[09.025] When he heard this Bilbo was all in a flutter, for he saw that luck was with him and he had a chance at once to try his desperate plan.  He followed the two elves, until they entered a small cellar and sat down at a table on which two large flagons were set.  Soon they began to drink and laugh merrily. Luck of an unusual kind was with Bilbo then.  It must be potent wine to make a wood-elf drowsy; but this wine, it would seem, was the heady vintage of the great gardens of Dorwinion, not meant for his soldiers or his servants, but for the king’s feasts only, and for smaller bowls not for the butler’s great flagons.

This graph peaks at three-and-a-half words per thousand, and I note with interest that Chapter 15 has no luck, ill or otherwise, about it.  The threatened war between those who should be allies was entirely their own will.  Now… I’ve lumped “fate” with “luck” here.  Is fate not something to do with the will of divinity?  or with the poetic demands of Story?  Much has been written and more will be – I invite comments, particularly with links to your own work.

Intriguing Hyphens

I nourish ideas about the different people Bilbo encountered in Middle Earth and the different languages those people spoke (although they may all have spoken Bilbo’s own language to him during the adventure there and back again).  I’ve mentioned a few times already that Tolkien uses a goodly number of hyphenated words which are not hyphenated in the OED (snow-peak, egg-question, check the Concordance for all 608 of them). Either they are separate words that he’s joined or compound words that he has separated.  He even had made compound words of ones which the OED says are separate words or hyphenated!  I thought of searching for these words to see if they show a particular region of Middle Earth which speaks a language that flexibly mooshes words together to express meaning more specifically.  Would the right word for that be agglutinative?

Well, it’s easy enough to search on hyphens (fear not, I took out the dashes).  I’m just going to leave this graph here for folks to nibble with their second breakfast.

Hyphenated Graph

I’m not sure what to make of it yet; my first approximation is that Westron, Bilbo’s native language, is the agglutinative one and that Mirkwood and the effects of dragon-sickness were both so depressing as to shock Bilbo out of his usual speech patterns.

Everybody Wins!!

This is the graph under consideration:

Bilbo

The Tolkien Professor has observed that Bilbo’s big crossroads are finding the ring, killing the spider, and going down the tunnel toward the dragon.  Each scene includes making an active choice to move forward in the dark.

[05.007]  ‘Go back? ‘ he thought.  ‘No good at all!  Go sideways?  Impossible!  Go forward?  Only thing to do!  On we go!’

Clearly these three choice points show up in our graph plus two more peaks – the end of Chapter 1 right before he runs out his front door without a pocket handkerchief, and the end of Chapter 17 (here we have run up against my unsteady hand copying the graph from Lexos in a flawed manner so that the chapter lines I drew don’t quite match up).  The words at that peak point are [17.062] “he had seen a sight that made his heart leap, dark shapes small yet majestic against the distant glow.”  Also, the Chapter 8 spider-killing peak extends into Chapter 9 and, although the Chapter 6 peak is overshadowed by the Chapter 5, there is one almost as large as the Chapter 12 and deserves mention!

Big thanks to Comfort & Food Guessers Kris, DMae, SonofSaradoc, Marie, Molly, SLMcAdie!

And Well Done Adventure & Challenge Guessers Dr Dmitra Fimi, Mattclen2, Repton, Tom Hillman, Galiodoc, Tom, SonofSaradoc!

And Shout-Out to Plot-Driven Guessers TriGirlJ, Tiberius, Ronan, Tom Hillman, Logan, Moxie, SonofSaradoc!

And the Winner is Kaypendragon!  The name “Bilbo” makes this graph!

Are you fascinated, too?  I hope that like me, you’re inspired to sift through the ends of Chapter 1 and ends of Chapter 17 as well as Barrels Out of Bond to see how they are related to Bilbo’s three big crossroads, or if we have a larger category here.  Do these six sections define the character even as his name identifies him?

Olsen, Corey. Exploring J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012. Print.

Tolkien, J.R.R. The Annotated Hobbit.  Revised and expanded edition annotated by Douglas A. Anderson. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. Print.