Ordinal Directions

We have no cases of “northeast” or that lot, but look at our capitalizations!

  • 07.130 and then bore to the north-west.
  • 10.002 Its nearest neighbours to the North-East
  • 11.003 They made north-west,
  • 13.053 at the South-West corner of the Mountain.’
  • 16.004 coming from the North-East.
  • 17.046 rolling away to the South-East;

Cardinal Directions

In order to wrestle properly with the hyphenated directions like North-east, I feel it necessary to first document our four cardinal directions in the work.  The directions are usually capitalized. I have emboldened those cases in which they are not – many of those instances are a direction of movement, we might substitute “northward”, but several are not.  They do cluster interestingly in Chapters 7 and 11.

  • 01.097 to the East of East
  • 01.105 You see that rune on the West side,
  • 01.114 We thought of going East,
  • 01.115 if I know anything about the roads East,’
  • 01.116 through the great cliff at the South of the Mountain,
  • 01.122 our family was driven out of the far North,
  • 01.122 who lived to the South,
  • 01.122 and the toy market of Dale was the wonder of the North.
  • 01.123 in the North in those days,
  • 01.123 with the dwarves flying south or getting killed,
  • 01.123 and came south.
  • 01.123 a noise like a hurricane coming from the North,
  • 01.140 Well, I should say that you ought to go East
  • 02.030 and mountains in the north.
  • 02.117 and jogged along again on the path towards the East.
  • 03.003 in the East
  • 03.007 to find the Last Homely House west of the Mountains.
  • 03.032 in the North.
  • 03.032 and heroes of the North for ancestors,
  • 03.035 very old swords of the High Elves of the West,
  • 04.002 in the West,04.004 when storms come up from East
  • 04.004 and West
  • 04.031 who live on the East side
  • 06.034 we are too far to the North,
  • 06.062 bold men had of late been making their way back into it from the South,
  • 07.011 Indeed we are now a good deal further east
  • 07.012 You are still some miles north of the path
  • 07.022 and before the goblins came into the hills out of the North.
  • 07.043 we were coming out of the Lands over West into these countries –
  • 07.045 It faced south
  • 07.055 away east beyond Mirkwood,’ put in Gandalf,
  • 07.055 that lies to the south of your country,
  • 07.094 in the West
  • 07.094 that lay outstretched far to North
  • 07.094 and South a day’s ride before them,
  • 07.094 barring their way to the East,
  • 07.100 The wind went on from West to East;
  • 07.100 The wind went on from West to East;
  • 07.117 except from the west over the river,
  • 07.117 on the east side of the Misty Mountains,
  • 07.130 at the east of his fenced lands
  • 07.130 they turned north
  • 07.130 to the south of his land.
  • 07.130 that joined the great river miles south of the Carrock.
  • 07.130 been far to the south of the Lonely Mountain,
  • 07.130 North of the Carrock
  • 07.130 for at a place a few days’ ride due north of the Carrock
  • 07.131 for a hundred miles north of the Carrock
  • 07.131 they will cross the river to the south
  • 07.131 Still you are safer going north,
  • 07.132 The sun had only just turned west when they started,
  • 07.133 in the East
  • 07.142 some pressing business away south;
  • 07.151 two hundred miles or so out of your way north,
  • 07.151 and twice that south.
  • 07.151 in the North
  • 07.151 in the South,
  • 07.151 high in the East,
  • 07.153 and rode down into the West.
  • 08.032 going by to the north of the path,
  • 08.131 They differed from the High Elves of the West,
  • 08.131 in the West.
  • 09.011 and in the lands to the East.
  • 09.018 and joined the Forest River some way further to the east,
  • 09.018 in the South,
  • 09.053 South away! and South away!
  • 09.061 and tubs away to the north bank,
  • 10.003 as the roads out of the East towards Mirkwood vanished
  • 10.003 that flowed east;
  • 10.003 in the North
  • 10.006 with another sweep towards the East
  • 10.007 that came up the great river from the South
  • 10.007 in the North was rich
  • 10.009 Soon men would come up from the South
  • 10.023 and Mr. Baggins who has travelled with us out of the West.’
  • 10.045 and off they went north up the lake
  • 11.006 to spy out the land to the South
  • 11.013 in the South
  • 11.013 Two of these here thrust forward west
  • 11.014 which turned north across the face of the Mountain.
  • 11.021 and stare away west through the opening,
  • 11.028 or out west through the narrow opening.
  • 11.029 As the sun turned west
  • 12.029 when Smaug came hurtling from the North,
  • 12.102 towards the west of the Mountain,
  • 12.104 and went away south
  • 13.024 Which is East, South, North, or West?’
  • 13.055 The river loops suddenly east
  • 13.065 and saw the wintry sun going downwards to the West.
  • 13.066 but backed to the North by a rocky face
  • 13.066 From that door there was a wide view East
  • 13.066 and South
  • 13.066 and West.
  • 13.071 They looked West
  • 13.071 and East there was nothing,
  • 13.071 and in the South there was no sign of the dragon,
  • 14.002 for the breeze was from the black East
  • 14.002 the Running River came down from the North.
  • 14.005 It is long since he went North.
  • 14.025 and drove it off to the West to scatter
  • 14.036 and go North with any that will follow me.’
  • 14.038 with which to buy rich things from the South;
  • 14.040 the news had passed west
  • 14.044 north to the Mountain.
  • 15.001 Their companies came flying from the South;
  • 15.014 in the South –
  • 15.015 and to Dale from South
  • 15.015 and East
  • 15.015 and West,
  • 15.021 in the mountains of the North,
  • 15.021 both west from here
  • 15.021 and east,
  • 15.028 and sent them back riderless to the South.
  • 15.029 away south
  • 15.033 That day the camp was moved to the east of the river,
  • 16.026 in the West
  • 17.031 The next day the wind shifted west,
  • 17.040 it came from the North,
  • 17.041 Bolg of the North is coming,
  • 17.044 for they resolved now to win the dominion of the North.
  • 17.044 and beneath the great mountain Gundabad of the North,
  • 17.044 in time of storm unawares upon the South.
  • 17.044 and came thus at last on a sudden from the North
  • 17.045 that struck south
  • 17.045 and east.
  • 17.048 to gain a view to the North.
  • 17.062 and a red sunset slashed the West.
  • 17.064 from all the eyries of the North.
  • 18.019 child of the kindly West.
  • 18.024 and such as fled south or west
  • 18.024 that three parts of the goblin warriors of the North
  • 18.043 to the north of the place where the Forest River ran out.
  • 19.006 in the south of Mirkwood.
  • 19.007 The North will be freed
  • 19.019 in the West before them,
  • 19.043 and from South and West,

Wonder

I dedicate the entry for this common word to Professor Verlyn Flieger, in honor of her gracious inspiration to all scholars.  It’s a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, all of long lineage from Old English to Old Norse, but the OED says, ultimately, “of unknown origin”.

I am particularly enchanted by the use of the word in 07.022 – “In the name of all wonder…”  In Gandalf’s mind, at least, “all wonder” fits nicely into a phrase where we might call upon deity.

  • 01.017 Not the fellow who used to tell such wonderful tales at parties,
  • 01.046 and wondered what had happened,
  • 01.046 while he was wondering
  • 01.058 and was beginning to wonder
  • 01.122 and the toy market of Dale was the wonder of the North.
  • 01.125 I have often wondered about my father’s
  • 02.054 and wondering how to make owl-noises
  • 02.072 who was wondering where
  • 03.020 Most astonishing wonderful!
  • 03.036 I wonder?” said Thorin
  • 05.001 he wondered if he had;
  • 05.008 and recover wonderfully from falls
  • 05.013 but he was wondering a lot about Bilbo,
  • 05.084 very wonderful.
  • 05.105 I wonder?’ he said to himself,
  • 05.119 and wonder.
  • 06.003 He wondered whether he ought not,
  • 06.006 and wondering
  • 06.024 and the hobbit wondered if he guessed
  • 06.087 and wondered if he could hold on any longer.
  • 06.090 He wondered what other nonsense he had been saying,
  • 06.092 He had just strength to wonder
  • 07.022 and in the name of all wonder don’t mention the word furrier
  • 07.046 wondering what their names could be,
  • 07.093 for the convenience of the wonderful animals
  • 07.107 Bilbo wondered what it was,
  • 07.113 waited on by Beorn’s wonderful animals,
  • 07.122 nor did they have to wonder long where he had been or why he was so nice to them,
  • 08.041 All the time he was wondering whether there were spiders
  • 08.078 and he stood a long while wondering
  • 08.125 Indeed they really expected him to think of some wonderful plan for helping them,
  • 08.129 They wondered what evil fate had befallen him,
  • 08.145 he began to wonder what had become of his unfortunate friends.
  • 09.021 and wondered if it could be used for the escape of his friends,
  • 09.044 Small wonder if I fall asleep from weariness!’
  • 09.045 Small wonder,’
  • 09.051 He wondered what on earth would happen to them without him;
  • 09.057 Bilbo wondered what the dwarves were feeling
  • 09.058 and he wondered if he would die of it before the luck turned,
  • 10.036 The Wood-elves themselves began to wonder greatly
  • 10.043 and he wondered if Thorin was
  • 11.031 wondering what on earth was the matter;
  • 12.015 in the days when all the world was wonderful.
  • 12.020 and wondered why he had never blocked it up.
  • 12.068 He had never bothered to wonder
  • 12.076 and wonderful, indeed,’
  • 12.096 They wondered
  • 13.013 Now I wonder what on earth
  • 13.039 and he began to wonder nervously
  • 13.056 I wonder how many breakfasts,
  • 13.071 and wondered;
  • 14.020 in wonder
  • 15.049 yet he had an eye for many another wonderful thing
  • 16.003 wondering what would happen,
  • 16.036 whose eyes were used to things of wonder and beauty,
  • 16.040 The Elvenking looked at Bilbo with a new wonder.
  • 16.040 But I wonder if Thorin Oakenshield will see it so.
  • 16.046 and wondered anxiously
  • 17.003 Wondering,
  • 17.010 But wonder overcame him
  • 17.065 Many wondering eyes looked up,
  • 18.002 Now I wonder what has happened?’
  • 18.014 I began to wonder if even your luck would see you through!
  • 19.037 it was a great deal more than a nine days’ wonder.

“wonder, n.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, June 2017. Web. 5 September 2017.

Roll

This very common word has joined the concordance in honor of its unusual use in the apple-barrel song of Chapter 9:

[09.049] Roll – roll – roll – roll,

roll-roll-rolling down the hole!

In the top line, the words “roll” are separated by spaces and hyphens, a repetitive phrase; but my goodness!  roll-roll-rolling has no spaces!  It is one word, and the OED assures us that the reduplicative is “a word form created by reduplication”.  I think that such a reduplicative even qualifies “roll-roll-rolling” as a vocable and sound play.

  • 01.066 Send them down the hall to roll!
  • 01.066 Send them down the hall to roll!
  • 02.070  and rolling nearly into the fire
  • 04.004  and go rolling
  • 04.036  and rolling
  • 04.043  – for dwarves can roll along at a tremendous pace,
  • 04.051  and the hobbit rolled off his shoulders into the blackness,
  • 06.040  rolled away from their feet;
  • 06.040  and rolling;
  • 06.065  and unless they rolled over quick they were soon all
  • 06.065  Very soon all about the glade wolves were rolling over
  • 07.035  He laughed a great rolling laugh,
  • 07.093  in rolling round drum-shaped sections of logs,
  • 07.094  Beorn in his deep rolling voice told tales
  • 07.099 and like a tide it roared and rolled;
  • 07.108  and had rolled down with a bump from the platform on to the floor.
  • 08.104  and rolled off the branch dead.
  • 08.108  that he just rolled off the branch
  • 09.048  they answered rolling the barrels to the opening.
  • 09.049  Roll – roll – roll – roll,
  • 09.049 roll-roll-rolling down the hole!
  • 09.054  was being rolled to the doors!
  • 09.055  the barrel rolled round
  • 09.059  roll off again
  • 09.060  a round-bellied pony that was always thinking of rolling on the grass.
  • 10.034  and it rolled loud
  • 12.076  The dragon rolled over.
  • 13.008  and rolled headlong into the hall!
  • 14.033  in the roll of the benefactors of our town;
  • 16.047  in turn rolled himself up
  • 17.040  Winter thunder on a wild wind rolled roaring up
  • 17.046  rolling away to the South-East;

 

“reduplicative, n. and adj.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, June 2017. Web. 5 September 2017.

Were-worm

This word escaped our original edition of the concordance because I lemmatized it under “worm”, a common word.  But now that we’re thinking about hyphens, I’ve returned to rescue this delightful word from the shadows.  If anyone knows of a good paper about were-worms, I would love to link it here –

  • 01.097 and fight the wild Were-worms

Hobbit-smell

A one-of-a kind scent, I’m sure!  This tells us about the refinement of Smaug’s olfactory sense and the distance of Lonely Mountain from The Shire.

  • 12.062 that there was one smell he could not make out at all, hobbit-smell;

Although “Hobbit” is listed in OED – and an invention of Tolkien’s – no hyphenated forms are.

“hobbit, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, June 2017, http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/87449. Accessed 14 September 2017.